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jlunseth last won the day on July 6 2015

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About jlunseth

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    M20K 231
  1. @paul, the weakness in this particular quick drain is the geometry. There is an entrance hole at the top, then a relatively long barrel down to the seal mechanism, which apparently is a narrow, angled opening when it is unsealed. It is perfect for something long and skinny to enter and not pass through. @carusoam, if one were to maintain power the rings would not slap. I powered the engine down thinking that might save it for a little use if I came up short of the runway. You have to make choices, and I was not trying to save the engine. @cnoe, I think that might be true of NA's, but my experience is it is not true of the TSIO360. If you are going through oil there is a reason that is not good. @peevee, sorry.
  2. I don't have anything against quick drains, I still have mine but it is now serviced regularly and I watch it for any signs of leakage. I would not takeoff again, every, if there were a drip. I still have the piece of plastic, it is 5mm long and 2 mm wide at the widest. That's how tiny a piece can be and still take down an aircraft. Before this event, my engine "used" about a quart of oil every ten hours or even less. I was told, "aircraft engines are like that, they burn oil." After the IRAN, and it is now several hundred hours after, I lose about a quart every 30 hours. If I change oil at 20 hours there is no need to add in between. If you are "burning" oil and your "aircraft engine" is just "like that," don't you believe it, the engine is unhappy about something.
  3. Chapter II. So, ok, it was not really the end, because our pilot and co-pilot woke up the next morning in a foreign country, called Can-something or other. The people there were friendly and helpful enough, the Fire Chief having been a good example. But this was not long after a not-so-magic event called "nine-one-one" and the pilot and co-pilot, never having intended to spend time with the good natured Canadian people, both lacked the magic they needed to get back to Kansas, aka their own country. The usual magic is passports and something new at the time called eAPIS codes, both of which the pilot had, but they were back in Kansas. So the next morning the pilot had to call a group of people in Kansas whose job it was to act gruff, and to huff and puff about things, to get back to Kansas. He talked to huffers and puffers in Buffalo, then Washington, and then in Ottawa, and finally one of them huffed and puffed and said, "I am going to have to call the CHIEF OF HOMELAND SECURITY, a large being in Washington, to see if we can let you back in to Kansas. I will call you back in an hour." An hour later, the phone rang and the huffer and puffer said that the large being in Washington had granted permission to come back to Kansas without penalty on one condition." "What condition" the pilot timidly asked. "You have to go to Buffalo, not Niagara, we don't have anyone in Niagara to wave their wand and let you in the gate." The pilot happily agreed, not remembering that Buffalo is a place where much larger magic carpets than his were present in large numbers. So the pilot and his co-pilot flew to Buffalo and landed between a really big magic carpet called something like "737" and another one called something like "MBraer" the pilot was really not paying attention he just knew they were really big, and went and saw the wand waver who huffed and puffed some more about why the pilot had not filed a magic eAPIS plan, but let the pilot in anyway. And of course, the pilots nifty airplane went into the shop some time later, where a mechanic said, "you have ring slap." Apparently, if a plane is put in a rapid descent (or dive, who knows) and the engine is powered down and the prop drives the engine rapidly, the nifty piston rings are not held against the nifty cylinder walls by nifty compression, and so they sort of rattle around. At any rate, the pilot got to have a mechanic shop do a nifty IRAN on the whole engine, which cost some sea shells to do, but that's ok because the engine ran alot better than it ever had and alot longer too. OK, now, The End.
  4. Once upon a time there was a pilot who had a nifty turbocharged aircraft equipped with a quick drain fitting that the mechanics all really appreciated. The pilot and his co-pilot were intending to fly from Minneapolis to Niagara, over Lake Michigan and in the twilight, to get there. When the pilot preflighted his nifty turbocharged aircraft he found one tiny dot of unfamiliar oil on the nose tire. So the pilot, being, he thought, a good, safe, above average pilot, had the plane wheeled into the shop for the mechanics to look at. The mechanics said, oh don't worry about it, it is just the quick drain dripping and they all do that. The pilot said, "Are you certain, because we are going to overfly Lake Michigan and with the delay to check the plane out, it will be in the dark." The mechanic said, "No problem, they just all do that." About two hours later the pilot had crossed the eastern shore of Lake Michigan, thankfully, and was at 19,000 with a nifty 75 knot tailwind, very pleased with himself, when a magic box called a JPI 930 spoke to him and said that his oil pressure was 14 lbs. "Uh, oh," the pilot though to himself, "it should be about 40 lbs." He tried a few things and it was still 14 lbs., so knowing what had happenned and what was going to come next (his oil was gone and the engine was going to freeze up and stop), and being blown by the nifty tailwind very quickly out over Lakes Erie and Huron (which are pretty big east to west), our pilot declared an emergency with Canadian ATC and put the plane in a rapid descent. Some would call it a dive, but let's not panic. The difficult part was that in the dark, over Canada, the nifty tailwind had also blown our pilot and his co-pilot into the back side of some weather, so the nifty dive, uh, rapid descent (who knows, the VSI was pegged), the pilot had to rely on some other magic boxes called "instruments" to make the passage to a lower altitude, without exceeding a magic speed called "Vne" where the plane would magically disappear, with the engine throttled back to save it if needed to make an airport, and to escape the nifty tailwind. Oh, and the next designated magic carpet landing area called "London, Ontario" was only 20 nautical miles distant, then more water. At one point, the co-pilot asked "Is there anything I can do," and the pilot, short on time, oil and alot of other things at that moment snapped "No" and so she (the co-pilot) shut up, for which the pilot was grateful. To make a long story short, our pilot was able to make a safe landing between the crash trucks at the end of the runway, the oil pressure having fallen to 6 psi. He taxied to the magic carpet ramp, where the Fire Chief climbed off the fire truck that had followed the pilot and his co-pilot in, took one look at the oil dripping off the entire underside of the aircraft, held out his hand, and said, "Nice landing, Captain." The pilot was not a Captain of anything on most days, but maybe on that day, he was. The very next day, another mechanic took the quick drain apart and found that a tiny piece of plastic that had been swimming around in the oil, had lodged in the quick drain, preventing it from completely sealing, and when the pilot ran is his nifty turbocharged engine the pressure in his nifty crankcase had caused all the nifty oil to blow out of his nifty engine. Well, almost all, it turned out that the tiny piece of plastic had a larger friend, a piece of rubber, that the plastic was swimming with. They must have been having a skinny dipping session. At any rate, when the oil got low enough, the piece of rubber had saved the last two quarts from departing. So the pilot and his airplane lived happily ever after, after all. So you just watch that quick drain. This has happened more than once, to more than one pilot, and the prior owner might have had his reasons for taking it out. Every year at annual, you should have your mechanic remove the quick drain and drain the oil through the big hole, to get all the skinny dippers out of the oil. Every few years you should have a "kit" installed so the quick drain is sealing well, so nothing this nifty ever happens to you. The End.
  5. It must be a little bit of an adventure running that aircraft out of a home base like Sedona. I bought my 231 (LB engine) in Scottsdale, and when we flew it home the mechanic that had just done the annual there had set the fuel flow up wrong. We could only get 19+ GPH out of it at full power, full rich. Had to make the climb due north. The ground temp at PHX was above 100. We could not climb faster than about 300 fpm without roasting the engine. We saw some remarkable CHT's on that flight. I have long since gotten the fuel flow sorted out and it is much better, but taking off from one of those northern AZ fields when the OAT is 100 and teens would still be interesting.
  6. Yes, the gauge is not much. I read it more like a binary switch, is the vacuum on or not.
  7. Well, that's kind of a personal subject, but I am proud of you.
  8. The HSI is the 525A which is electric, it is slaved to the flux gate. The KI 256 is the air driven (vacuum) Attitude Indicator. The KFC uses the signal from the 256 (its an attitude-based AP). I haven't had the "persistent low" problem the OP describes, but I have had the vacuum fail (VMC) and its exactly as the OP describes, pitch excursions because of the unstable gyro. I might still have the gyro checked though. On my gauge, 4.5 is at the bottom of the green range or just slightly outside it. Maybe not an issue, but could be some friction in the gyro.
  9. I looked under the cowling and I couldn't find mine either. Have there been a rash of thefts?
  10. Higher serial numbered 231's can be converted to the MB (that's the 262 conversion), I don't know about the SB , but I am not aware of anyone having an STC to convert to an SB. Probably you could do it if you have a few hundred thousand in spare change for the approval process, but then why wouldn't you just buy an Encore? I am not sure that the holder of the STC for the 262 conversion still does it, either. You can't just drop a different engine in without an STC or 337, and I doubt that a FSDO would do it on a 337.
  11. This whole question "how do I operate my 231" and "how do I make it LOP," seems to come up every couple of weeks. There are lots of good threads on it by now. Here goes. Absolute v. Relative EGT. Absolute EGT is a meaningless number. Absolute EGT will vary from cylinder to cylinder simply because of the location of the sensor in the exhaust manifold. Also, the sensor does not measure the temperature of the exhaust gas, believe it or not. The sensor sits outside the exhaust port, which opens and closes as the engine operates. So the probe is actually measuring the average temperature of the probe itself, heated by the periodic blasts coming out of the cylinder. Also, the probes need to be the exact same distance from the port or they will be heated by the temperature in a different part of the exhaust flame. Typically there are obstructions or simply turns in the manifold that require installing some probes a different distance from the port than others. EGT is not a redline number, it does not matter what absolute EGT the engine produces, there is no limit to worry about. Relative EGT, on the other hand, is very important. When you run LOP in particular, you want each of the six cylinders to be running sufficiently lean of its peak EGT. As 201er points out, you need to treat each of the cylinders as a separate little engine. If you have five of the cylinders safely lean of peak but one at peak or even over on the rich side of peak, that cylinder will be hotter and experience much different ICP than the five LOP cylinders. The GAMI's are an effort to balance fuel flow among the cylinders so that all six peak relatively close together. You can determine that with a lean test, as has been mentioned, and it is not necessary to measure the fuel flow at each cylinder. The lean test measures the total fuel flow when each cylinder peaks, not individual cylinder flow, what you want is all six cylinders peaking within .5 GPH (total fuel flow) of each other. Power on the lean side is not determined by manifold pressure as it is on the rich side, it is determined by fuel flow. There is a simple formula for it, which is a multiplier times the fuel flow. The multiplier depends on the compression ratio of the engine, the compression ratio of the turbocharged engine being lower than an NA. The multiplier for our engine (I have the TSIO360LB), is 13.7. So if fuel flow is, say, 11 GPH, times 13.7 equals 151 HP, divided by total rated HP of 210 is 72% power. While MP does not increase or decrease power on the lean side (this according to APS), it does affect degrees lean of peak. Degrees lean of peak is determined by how lean the fuel air mixture is. Duh! You can make the fuel air mixture leaner two ways. One, you can keep the MP at a set value, but reduce the fuel. Two, you can keep the fuel flow at a set value and increase the MP. This brings me to something I think you may be doing wrong. In the 231, you can't make a power setting, let's say 28" MP and 13 GPH, and then just dial the fuel flow back to, say, 9, believing you are running LOP because you cut the fuel flow. The reason is that the MP and fuel flow controls are interlinked, so if you make that 28 and 13 setting and then dial the fuel flow back, the MP is also going to drop, and you will wind up at a lower power setting but basically the same ROP mixture. To get LOP from that 28 and 13 setting, you need to adjust the MP up as you dial the fuel flow back, so you wind up at the same 28" and 9 GPH (or wherever you want to set it). There is, however, something we turbo guys can do to affect the LOP setting that the NA guys can't for the most part. Since more air makes the mixture more LOP, and since power is not affected by MP on the lean side, we can dial the MP up. And that is what I do. I like to operate at that 72% setting, but to make sure I am sufficiently lean of peak to protect the cylinders I usually use 34" of MP! That's right, 34. RPMs are 2450. This puts me somewhere around 20-30 degrees LOP on all the cylinders and they stay cool while producing good cruise power. I can't do this over about 15 or 16k except on cold days, because the thinner air does not cool well and the temps get out of line. I have to go over to a ROP setting. Probably if I tinkered with the baffling and the engine I could improve this, but my engine is near TBO so I don't bother. At your 9 GPH I would probably use 30". However one of the "rules" the APS guys have given us is that at 65% power you can run the engine anywhere you want, LOP, ROP or right at peak, without hurting it. At 9 GPH you are probably under 60%. Given that, the temp you are seeing on the one cylinder is a little puzzling. I would run an airborne mag check to make sure both plugs are working on that cylinder. It is also possible that the fuel flow on that cylinder is way out of line despite the fact that you have GAMI's, I would also do a lean test, you can find instructions on the APS website. There is a temp. you do have to watch in addition to CHT and that is TIT. The APS guys tell us that a turbo is fine running at any temp up to its constant operating temp redline. For our engine that is 1650. However, I keep the TIT at or under 1600. If it goes higher I dial the fuel flow back, and if that is not working I will go over to the ROP side, which is not often. The Bravo and Acclaim owners run their turbos hotter, I just don't like to. I take off and climb at around 36", full rich. At cruising altitude I level off, close the cowl flaps, adjust the temp and speed on the ASI, letting the plane get up to cruising speed. Then I dial the MP back slightly to about 35", dial the RPMs down to 2450, and do the big pull to bring the fuel flow down to about 11. Then I have to do some adjusting to get the MP to 34 because it drops when I adjust the fuel flow, and I adjust the fuel flow to get it right at 11 or just under. So there I am, 34", 2450 RPMs, 11 GPH, 72% power, about 20 LOP on all cylinders.
  12. Yes and its both the top and bottom cowls, which of course would include the cowl flaps. The "nose cone" of the K is longer than that of the NAs to make room for the six cyl. Also, there would be the major weight and balance issue. As every pilot knows or should know, a plane is basically a balanced flying lever. You would be changing both the weight in the nose, and the length of the arm.
  13. I have a 430AW, Icarus SAM, and the KFC200, basically they are the same set up. I have found that you have to switch to APPR mode before the FAF, if that helps. I had the same symptom as you until I figured that out. I did some research and consulted a couple of people who are experts on the King AP's. I don't really recall all the detail, it has been awhile, but what I remember is this: The KFC autopilots (the old ones, the 150 and 200s), were designed to fly an ILS using the heading bug to intersect the final approach course. One puts the AP in APPR mode and the AP flies the course set in the bug until it intercepts the final approach course, where it couples to the course. To do the intercept, it computes a rate of closure to the course. If you are directly on what the AP views as the final approach course when you switch to APPR, it usually couples immediately. If you are off the course a good distance it uses the closure algorithm, computes and executes an intercept. But there is narrow window near but not directly on the course, where you are not precisely on the course and where the computer is unable to develop a rate of closure, and without that it does not recognize the final approach course. It flies off on what it thinks is an intercept, and can be quite persistent about it. Where there is a GPSS, the GPSS is fooling the AP into thinking the commands coming from the GPS are the heading bug setting. I think the GPSS exacerbates the issue. I believe there is a variance between what the GPSS views as the final approach course, and what the AP views as being on the course, and if the GPSS believes it is on the course it does not attempt to close to the APs view of the final approach course, because it does not know what that is or that it even exists. The difference between the two is not that great, there is only a narrow window where this happens but it can happen. If you switch to APPR mode far enough before the FAF, this does not seem to happen. If you wait until the FAF or close to the FAF, it can. I usually switch a few miles before the FAF and just have not seen the problem for a few years now. I encountered the problem when I first had the Icarus and 430 installed, which was several years ago now.
  14. Ta da. The short answer is it needs fuel. The long answer is how to give it fuel in time to keep it running until the mechanical pump can do its job. The hot start procedure and the high altitude procedure are exactly the same. The truly cold start procedure requires more prime. Look in your POH for that. The prime is what initially starts the engine and let's it run for a few revolutions until you can help it with the high boost pump. I would use a little more prime than you are using for a normal start, I do a six count. You will need to experiment a little to figure out what times work best for your engine. I am told that the prime puts fuel "directly into the cylinders." How it does that, I don't know. I would have though it is simply put in through the injectors, but that is not "directly into the cylinders" even if the idle cutoff and throttle are open. The injectors put fuel into the induction manifold just before the intake port. At any rate, the separate use of prime once the lines are filled is important. I can't remember the last time I had to hit the starter more than once, maybe four or five years ago. That would be three or four hundred starts.
  15. The TSIO360 is an easy starting engine. I am going to tell you how to start it under all conditions, even down to 20F if you have to (that's not easy on the starter, so heating would be preferred). What it needs is fuel. A typical "difficult start" scenario is the pilot gives it a few seconds of prime, mixture and prop full in and throttle about half way out. Hit the starter, it fires and rolls over a few times, then dies. You can do that many times before it will start and keep running, or the batteries fail. That's because the fuel lines are empty or partly empty, the prime that you put in allows the engine to run, but not long enough for the mechanical pump to fill the lines, so it quits again. The first thing you need to do is use the high boost to fill the lines. Pull the throttle and mixture full out. Run the high boost until the fuel pressure stabilizes. This tells you that the lines are full or as full as you are going to get them. Then you are ready for step two. It is worth stopping for a moment and talking about the Deakin article that was referred to earlier. Deakin says that the Continentals have a return line. If you pull the idle mixture out, fuel flow to the induction system is shut off, so running the boost pump fills the lines and any excess goes back into the tanks via the return line. Deakin recommends running the high boost for a full minute in a hot start situation, the purpose of which is to use cool fuel to cool the fuel system so bubbles don't form and the system does not vapor lock. He might be right for some Continentals, but he is wrong when it comes to the TSIO360. I don't know the details of the fuel system, but I can tell you that running the high boost for a period longer than it takes to stabilize the fuel pressure is the one sure way to get the engine to backfire. So don't do that. If you do not have a good pressure gauge (I have a JPI930) then run the high boost for ten to fifteen seconds, but no more. All you want to do is fill the lines and that will do it. Now, make the mixture full rich and the manifold pressure full in. Run the primer for whatever period is recommended in your POH. It varies depending on OAT. 3-4 seconds, however, is not enough. Make it six seconds under normal conditions and up to twenty in cold conditions. Now you have the fuel lines full and the cylinders are primed. You are ready to start. Pull the manifold pressure back to about half. Leaving the safety cage on the high boost, put your finger on the top of the boost switch, don't push it yet, just put your finger there. Now hit the starter, the engine will fire. When/if you hear it begin to die, push the top of the boost switch. If you leave the cage on the switch does not go into the ON detent position, it acts like an instant off switch - let go and the pump stops instantly. So when you hear the engine start to die push the top of the switch and hold it for a few seconds while the engine spins up. Then let go. If you let go too early and it starts to die just hit the top of the high boost again until it is spinning nicely. This works as long as the prop is still spinning, even if the engine seems to have died completely. It will fire back up and stay running as long as you supply it with fuel. No matter how hard you work to fill the lines before starting, the fuel seems to seep back down and what you are doing with the high boost is supplementing the fuel flow to the engine until the mechanical pump has full prime and the lines are completely full. This works all the time, at all altitudes and under all start conditions, hot, cold down to about 20F although you might have to try a few times, I have done it at sea level and at Leadville (approx. 10,000 ft.). Sounds complicated but works every time. I got to this after trying several things including finding the Deakin article and trying that method, which worked except for the backfire when I tried the "full minute cool". And on John Deakin himself, I took the seminar, have met him and he is a very smart man when it comes to planes and engines. His method may work on big bore Conti's I don't know, I do know that ovber fifteen seconds of high boost produces a backfire, the engine will start fine, but the backfire part is not so good.